bookmark_borderTiling Your Carpet Flooring

How often should you get your carpet dry cleaned?

When was the last time you dry cleaned your carpet? Remember, the weekly or biweekly vacuuming doesn’t count. While it is a necessary practice, vacuuming only eliminates surface dirt and particles. It does not remove stains, tacky dirt and mud, and abrasive particles that ruin your carpet over time.

Unlike steam cleaning, dry cleaning does not introduce excessive moisture into your carpet. Moisture can encourage mould growth, especially if you don’t dry the fibres properly. Instead, the dry cleaning method removes dirt and stains and refreshes your carpet without exposure to unnecessary moisture. But how often should you get your carpets professionally cleaned? Here are a few pointers to help you decide:

Consider the number of people in your household.

The more people who use your home, the higher the chances of your carpet getting soiled often. A household with two occupants may not have the same carpet cleaning needs as one with five.

Thus, if your home has more than two or three people, dry clean your carpet at least once or twice every twelve months. Doing so will improve air quality and boost the overall appearance of the carpets and floor rugs in your home.

If you have children …

If you are a parent, you likely have seen your child spill a drink on the carpet or track dirt into the house from playing outside.

To keep the carpet clean and fresh, parents should clean high-traffic carpet areas every six to 12 months and professionally clean the entire carpet once annually.

If you have pets …

Pet owners typically require carpet cleaning more often, due to dogs tracking in dirt and grass, pets shedding, and any urine or accidents your pet may have on the carpet.

In addition to vacuuming at least twice a week, pet owners should clean high-traffic areas every three to six months and professionally clean the entire carpet twice per year.

5 answers to whether you should deep clean carpets

Why Deep Clean?

Vacuum cleaning is a great way to keep surface dirt off your carpets and floors. However, deep cleaning takes the process a step further and actually washes the carpet fibres and removes dirt that is hidden deep down inside the carpet.

How Much Effort is Required?

We have made it our duty to provide great deep cleaning products without having to double up the work. The effort needed to deep clean your carpets when using a BISSELL machine is as easy as vacuuming, and just as cost effective. Carpets can hold 450 grams of dirt per square foot. Deep cleaning your carpets and rugs will preserve their condition by removing fine debris and larger dirt particles from the very bottom, keeping them looking like new and smelling fresh.

How Often Should I Deep Clean?

Deep cleaning all depends on the amount of traffic in your home. We recommend deep cleaning your carpets and rugs at least twice a year, however, if you have pets, kids or a smoking habit, we recommend deep cleaning every quarter. This will keep your carpets grime free and in the best shape possible.

How Hard Is It To Empty the Tank?

As soon as your dirt reaches the ‘full’ line, it’s time to empty the tank. Simply remove the tank from the machine and empty the dirty water into the sink. Refill the tank with clean water and solution, pop it back in to the machine and you’re ready to go again!

Is Deep Cleaning the Same as Steam Cleaning?

No, steam cleaners such as the BISSELL Vac&Steam are used on sealed hard surfaces and create actual steam which is used to clean the surface. A deep cleaning machine such as the PowerWash™ Deluxe carpet cleaner is designed to get to the bottom of the dirt and remove it from carpets, rugs, stairs and upholstery with its 6 rows of DirtLifter™ PowerBrushes and removable water tank.

Deep cleaning is a great way to preserve your carpets for a long time, to prevent them from having to be replaced so soon. Carpet cleaning machines can cost the same as hiring in a professional but allow mums and dads to keep their carpets in tip top shape as often as they feel the need. Don’t call in the experts, be an expert yourself with your own deep cleaning machine.

Signs Your Carpets Need To Be Professionally Cleaned

The exact frequency your carpet needs to be cleaned varies based upon the type of carpeting, the amount of traffic it gets, and how soiled it becomes over time. Some signs that indicate the need for steam cleaning including:

#1. One Stain Keeps Reappearing

You noticed a nasty stain on your carpet, so you went to work cleaning it and as you scrubbed you watched with satisfaction as it disappeared. The next day you noticed the stain was back again, so you went to work cleaning it up… and then, the very next day, there it is again, just staring at you, taunting. Now what? Reappearing stains require professional carpet cleaning services.

#2. Your Carpet Has Lost Its Fluffy Look

Regular traffic smashes carpeting down and the dirt trapped within fibers keeps them held down. Eventually, carpeting starts to resemble a flattened cardboard box as opposed to a plush surface you want in your home. This flattened and un-fluffy appearance is a sign that carpets need to be deep cleaned. After cleaning carpet fibers, they should fluff back up.

But, at a certain point, the carpet is no longer salvageable. We are happy to asses your carpeting and let you know if steam cleaning will help, or if carpeting needs to be replaced. Regular cleaning helps prevent carpet from becoming so flattened down that it needs to be prematurely replaced.

#3. There’s Dust Trapped Inside

If a lot of dust enters your home through open doors and windows it is possible for your carpets to host pounds, literally pounds, of dust and dirt. If you notice big puffs of dust coming up out of your carpeting when you vacuum, or when you hit it with the flat palm of your hand, it’s time to have your carpets professionally cleaned.

#4. Your Carpet Has A Funky Odor

If your carpet smells stale or musty it needs to be professionally cleaned. Odors signify a buildup of impurities and possibly even mold spores, which can make you sick.

#5. Your Carpets Are Not Looking So Good

If your carpets have lost their original color or texture, or simply appear dirty right after you vacuum, it’s time to deep clean surfaces.

Some forms of nasty bacteria commonly found in household carpets include:

  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): This penicillin-resistant bacteria is especially common in households with athletes or occupants that regularly go to the gym. The nasty bug is commonly found in gyms and commonly gets brought home on clothing, shoes, and gym bags.
  • MRSA loves cuts and can jump right in. A healthy person can carry MRSA for years and not even know it. It leads to red bumps that are painful and get worse with time, leading to fever and rashes. Certain cases of MRSA remain untreatable and can even lead to death.
  • Campylobacter: Most common in the winter, this type of bacteria can lead to bloody diarrhea, stomach pains, and fever in young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems.
  • Fungi and mold: A few different types of fungi and molds live in carpeting, some of which cause allergies and can even be life threatening in the most serious cases.
  • Norovirus: These bacteria cause nasty stomach flus, and can survive on your carpets for as long as 4-6 weeks just waiting to infect you.
  • Micrococcus: This type of bacteria is known to cause skin infections, septic shock, meningitis, and even death.

bookmark_borderEvent Videographer Tips For Capturing The Important Moments

Tips for Hiring a Video Production Company

When you are looking to hire a video production company, you might not have an idea of what to expect, what to prepare for, and what is a good price for the work you want. We here at Sparksight pride ourselves on being “Easy to work with” because we know each of our new clients have these questions in mind when deciding on who to go with for their video production needs. Keep these 5 tips in mind for your next video project to make sure you get the best bang for your buck!

1. Contract workers and quality

Oftentimes, contract employees help video production houses save on overhead costs and, might ultimately lower your bottom line. However, this sometimes comes at a cost, and that cost is quality. Every shooter/animator/creative has a different style of how they work. If you choose to work with a production house that has contracted employees, make sure you know their styles and if that will fit with your vision. Be sure to ask your production house if they’re using contract workers and make sure their style is in line with your project.

2. Keep your destination in mind

Another important thing to know is ultimately where your videos will live. If you need some case study videos that will live on YouTube and your website, a video that’s over 2 minutes could work. However, if you plan on sharing them on Facebook/Instagram/Twitter, you will need to shorten the length of your video content for viewer retention. Consider 15 second or less ‘teaser’ videos for your social media pages, and keep the full length videos on YouTube/Vimeo/websites. Be sure to let your production house know that you’ll be wanting shorter videos for social media, they will format your video file optimized for mobile.

3. Don’t depend on the demo reel

Demo reels are great to show off the ultimate potential of the production house, however, take a look at more recent work that the company has produced. This should give you a good idea and grasp of what to expect with your video purchase. Base your expectations on recent videos, and if you’re looking for something different, don’t be afraid to ask! We know from experience that it can be tough to fit in all great content into a short demo reel, so nothing excites us more than a client who wants to see more!

4. Shop around

Get quotes from various video production houses and be reasonable in your search. Just because that wedding videographer can do your customer testimonial for a few hundred bucks, doesn’t mean you’re going to receive the same quality that you would receive if you went with the highest bidder. If your neighbor’s nephew just graduated with film degree and has the newest equipment, doesn’t mean he’s qualified with properly handling you or your client’s expectations. Also, remember to shop and get bids from places that specialize in the area of videos you’re looking for. For example, if you’re looking for a 2D animated video, make sure you seek bids from people with exceptional 2D experience and demonstrations of their work.

5. Don’t compromise your vision for your budget

One of the most important things to stress is that a lot of clients feel as though when they pay for a video shoot, they only have shots for one video. This is untrue! When scheduling a shoot date, gather as much material as you can for multiple videos. You paid for the shoot day, so you retain the rights to your footage (at least, our clients do). Each video you can produce out of a shoot day ultimately reduces your cost for each individual video and offers you a video package that you may incorporate in your video marketing strategy.

Questions to Ask When Hiring a Freelance Videographer

You’ve decided that you need to start producing video content for your company, but you don’t know how. Luckily, there are plenty of professionals online that are willing to help you — for a fee, of course.

As long as you ask the following four questions, before hiring one of them, you should be able to partner with quality freelancers who know how to create stellar video content.

1. Do I Need to Hire a Freelance Videographer?

Before hiring a freelance videographer, ask yourself if you actually need to partner with this kind of professional. Is video marketing a viable strategy for your brand? The answer is most likely “yes,” but it’s always smart to make sure. If your audience has no interest in video, don’t waste your time and money creating video content.

You also shouldn’t hire a freelance videographer if you have in-house talent who can create videos for you instead. Maybe someone on your staff has a hidden skill set and would love the chance to flex their creative muscles by working on videos for your brand. Assigning video creation duties to current employees is often cheaper than bringing in external partners.

Once you’ve decided that, yes, you need to create video content and, no, there’s no one currently on your staff that can do it for you, move on to question number two.

2. What do I Need a Freelance Videographer to Do?

What kind of video content do you need created? You can’t simply hire a freelancer and say, “Make me a video.” You need to approach this content type strategically.

Think about the kind of videos you want created and how your freelancer of choice will help you bring them to life. For example, maybe you’re able to shoot the footage yourself, but you need a professional to edit the content into an engaging visual experience.

On the other hand, maybe you’re looking for a videographer to help you brainstorm video ideas, capture the footage, and edit it together into a compelling piece of content.

What you need your freelancer to do will dictate who you’re able to work with. Some video professionals only edit animated videos, while others only work with businesses in the local regions.

Decide what exactly you need your freelancer to accomplish for your business so that you don’t waste time looking for videographers who aren’t aligned with your purpose.

3. What’s my Budget and Timeline?

The videographer you hire will expect payment for the work they do — as they should. They are providing a valuable service to your company and should be compensated appropriately. That’s why it’s important to decide on your budget before contacting any freelancers. The amount you’re prepared to spend will dictate who you’re able to work with.

If your budget is small, don’t expect to hire seasoned professionals who usually work for big-name brands. Also, don’t hire an expensive freelancer for simple jobs that any entry-level videographer can do.

Balance your budget with the jobs you need completed and find a qualified freelance videographer who fits your unique needs.

It’s important to note that your timeline will likely affect your budget as well. If you need a videographer to complete a project on a tight deadline, you’ll probably have to pay more for the job. Keep this in mind when evaluating the funds you have to spend on video projects.

4. Where do I Find Qualified Freelance Videographers?

One you’ve decided what kinds of video projects you need completed and the budget you have for them, you can begin looking for qualified freelance videographers to partner with. But where do you find top-notch professionals? You have a few different options:

  • Get Referrals: The easiest way to find qualified freelancers is to ask your network for a referral. If someone you trust endorses a videographer who specializes in the kind of content you need created, you should be able to hire them with confidence.
  • Post to Online Groups: If your immediate network doesn’t yield any freelance videographer suggestions, consider posting to the online forums, Facebook and LinkedIn groups, etc. that you’re a part of. The recommendations you get from these people are a great place to start when looking to hire a freelancer.
  • Search Freelance Job Boards: Job boards like Upwork, Fiverr and others are full of talented video professionals who would be happy to help you with your video needs. Hiring a videographer through one of these sites will allow you to easily see projects they’ve completed for other companies and read reviews.
  • Work With a Talent Recruiter: Lastly, you can work with a talent recruiter who will find a freelance videographer for you. While you might have to pay for this service, it will allow you to focus on your business and let another qualified professional discover the perfect freelancer partner.

None of the above options are exclusive. You could, for example, ask your network, post to online groups, and search freelance job boards to find the right videographer if you want.

Tips on Choosing a Videographer

1. If a video production company seems very inexpensive, it’s probably because they don’t plan or know how to provide the necessary effort for your job to be successful. You’ll essentially “get what you pay for.”

With the ease of purchasing decent video equipment today, anyone can with a video camera can claim to be a videographer. They may have a winning personality and sway you with their sales pitch, but you have to be able to decipher between the professionals, and the part-timer hobbyist.

As with any industry, you’ll find individuals and companies who are in it for the quick dollar, are doing it as a semi-hobby or are just starting out. When prices are lower than other estimates, you may want to dig deeper and find out what is and isn’t included. Look for authentic client reviews, past video work, years of experience, equipment used, etc.

Experience matters. A company without experience may know how to do a certain task very well. However when they are faced with problems or changing requirements they have never faced, they won’t be able to cope.

Unfortunately when it becomes time to satisfy your requirements, they will be learning with your project and the results will most often be disappointing.

2. If you meet or get in contact with the videographer to discuss your project, they should prioritize learning what your objectives are and be willing to learn as much about your company and the subject as possible.

You’ll receive insight on their professionalism, how they work and equipment they use. They also may share their experience with ideas on how to make your project better than you imagined.

The majority of a video project effort goes into the planning, known as the pre-production phase. Inexperienced video companies don’t realize this. Without the planning, they may shoot and then realize that the story line doesn’t work properly and they can’t use anything they shot

If the videographer does not display interest in your objectives for the video, doesn’t mention the planning process or if they say, “We’ll just show up and shoot your video,” watch out!

3. A video company should be able to show you examples of work they’ve done similar in concept to what you need for your project.

If they can show you a sample of work they’ve done that matches your vision that you like then you’re definitely on the right track. Bear in mind that no one else may have done a video exactly like you are looking for so you are looking for something with the look and feel you want rather than an exact match.

4. The videographer should be able to provide a list of recent clients you can speak with to learn about their


If this isn’t available, or even if you find yourself questioning what the available references are able to tell you, this is an obvious red flag. A professional videographer should strive to satisfy their customer’s needs and if there is any sign of an unsatisfied client or mediocrity, the same is likely to happen to you.

How to Hire the Right Real Estate Videographer

Many agents and brokers view real estate videography as the next step in the evolution of marketing listings — and it’s easy to see why. A joint report by the National Association of Realtors and Google shows nearly five in six home buyers use real estate videos to learn more about a community, while 70 percent of them use video to tour the insides of listings. The primary medium to view these videos? YouTube, which is where more than half of buyers turn to get more information for their home search.

All of these stats mean nothing, though, if you don’t know how to create captivating real estate videos — or hire the right person to produce footage for you. Keep reading to learn how to hire the right amateur or professional to take your real estate videography to the next level.

Determine the type of video you want to produce.

Video marketing for real estate includes more than just community and listing tour videos. Capturing footage of former clients discussing how much they enjoyed working with you, providing instructional videos discussing buying and selling tips, and offering video to detail your business history and value proposition are just a few great ideas that can build your brand and audience. But not all real estate videographers film these kinds of videos; many only specialize in one or two niches of real estate video marketing.

Think about what kinds of video you want to create before searching for videographers. This helps narrow your real estate video intentions and, in turn, will make it easier to search online for the right person (or production company) to hire.

Decide how much you’re willing to pay.

Your budget also plays a big role in your real estate videographer choice. Determine how much you’re willing to pay a videographer. This includes not only their shooting fees, but also post-production. You likely don’t want to edit your videos yourself, so adding in this expense to your budget is a must. Other costs that should be factored in include travel expenses, lodging fees (if the videographer lives far away), video backup services (so your footage is safe and secure), and production add-ons that may be needed to get the best lighting and sound for your video.

High fees from an amateur or professional videographer may mean that turning to video recording apps to capture footage yourself may be your best option, for the short term at least. But hiring a videographer is your best opportunity to make a big impression with your real estate video marketing, so budget carefully and you’ll eventually be able to afford at least an amateur freelancer with a history of working for real estate pros and producing high-quality work.

Seek recommendations from colleagues and peers.

Don’t feel like you have to conduct your real estate videographer search from scratch. Seek out other agents at your agency or brokerage or industry peers for recommendations. As noted, video marketing is becoming more popular among real estate professionals by the day, so there are likely numerous agents and brokers you can turn to for suggestions. Ask specific questions about the videographers they worked with, including:

  • How much they were charged altogether for an individual video and for a series of videos
  • How easy it was to work with their videographer
  • What the process of working with a video professional is like
  • How long it took their videographer from start to finish (filming, editing, providing the final product)
  • If they work with voice-over artists who can narrate videos
  • What kinds of video technology they work with (cameras, sound and lighting gear, editing software, etc.)

bookmark_borderSeek Swift Medical Attention And Contact Dog Bite Lawyer Enforcement

What Happens if a Dog Bites Someone on Your Property?

what happens if a dog bites someone on your property? Whether invited guest, trespasser, or salesperson, you may be held liable in certain circumstances. An even bigger question is who pays the expenses related to a dog bite lawsuit?

Below you’ll learn about the different scenarios in a dog bite lawsuit involving an incident on your property, as well as a brief primer on whether your homeowner’s or renter’s insurance will cover the alleged damages. Keep in mind, this is a general overview and each state has its own, unique dog bite laws and statutes. Be sure to check the laws in your state or contact a local attorney to learn more.

Premises Liability: What Standard of Care Do You Owe?

The first thing we should look at in a dog bite case on your property is premises liability. When a person enters your property they have a reasonable expectation they will not be injured. This is known as the “standard of care.” A homeowner owes a certain standard of care to anyone on their property. That’s pretty fair, right? This means the owner or occupier of the property, such as a renter, must maintain a relatively safe environment for all persons entering the premises. This includes keeping potentially dangerous animals away from guests or being sure to put up warning signs about the animal’s propensities.

Invited Guests and Others

In most situations, dog owners owe a reasonable duty of care to anyone lawfully on their property. If the injured person can show the owner’s negligence or failure to use reasonable care in restraining the dog or warning of the dog’s dangerous propensities, they may sue for damages in many states.


You may find it shocking to know that the law in a minority of states actually allows trespassers who are bitten by your dog on your property to bring a lawsuit. It will ultimately depend on both the state you are in and whether or not there is a dog bite statute in place that protects owners from liability to trespassers. For instance, Florida’s dog bite statute only allows persons to sue the owner or occupier if they are bitten by a dog and that person is in a public place or lawfully in a private place. Simply put, a person is not lawfully in a private place if they are trespassing, attempting to commit a burglary, or other criminal offense.

Dangerous Propensities

If your Chihuahua Daffodil has sunk her teeth into people in the past, you are on notice that she can be considered dangerous under the law. In that case, if Dangerous Daffodil bites someone on your property, the homeowner or occupier may be held strictly liable. A safeguard against this, however, is to put up a warning sign, indicating there is a dangerous dog on the property.

Who Pays When Fido Bites?

One important tip is that if you do own a dog and are concerned about being held liable if they bite another person, you may want to consider homeowner’s or renter’s insurance. Most policies have some form of coverage available in the event you are sued due to an animal bite on your property. There are also certain types of pet insurance policies you may be able to get to cover these incidents. Ultimately, if you have neither of these, you can be held personally liable if you lose a lawsuit against an injured party.

Defenses for Dog Owners

There are few defenses available to dog owners whose pets cause severe injuries. The two most common include trespassing and provocation. As previously mentioned, a dog owner has no duty of care to prevent injury to a trespasser, nor is a dog owner responsible for a dog retaliating against provocation.

If someone injures the dog, threatens the dog physically, or takes inappropriate action against the dog’s owner, the owner is not liable for the dog attacking out of self-defense or in defense of its owner.

Contributory negligence comes into play in many dog bite lawsuits in Pennsylvania. If a jury decides that a dog bite victim contributed to his or her injuries in any way, this contributory negligence does not necessarily bar the victim from recovery. However, the victim would lose a portion of the case award equal to his or her percentage of fault for the incident. Additionally, if the jury decides the plaintiff’s fault exceeds the defendant’s, then the plaintiff cannot recover damages.

Seek Swift Medical Attention and Contact Law Enforcement

If a dog bites someone, your initial reaction might be shock. And, if you’re the property owner that owns the dog, panic might set in as you worry if you’re liable.

Stay calm and do the following:

  • Move the dog away from the person. Tie the dog up or put it in a separate room where it can’t get loose.
  • If the injuries are severe, seek medical help right away.
  • Treat the person that was bitten. Gently wash their wound with warm water and soap. If there’s bleeding, stop the bleeding with gauze or paper towels and apply pressure to the wound.
  • Avoid placing blame or admitting fault. What you say can sometimes be used against you.
  • If there were witnesses get their statements and contact information.
  • When law enforcement arrives, let them assess the situation. They will determine if the dog should be removed.
  • Contact your veterinarian for the dog’s medical records.
  • Contact your home insurance provider.

What to Know If Your Dog Bites Someone

Did your dog bite someone? Learn about the statutes holding dog owners responsible for their pet’s actions. Find out if you need a personal injury lawyer.

If you’re a dog owner and your pet has bitten someone, you may be concerned about your legal rights. What if that person decides to press charges? There are three main types of laws that place liability for dog-caused injuries on the dog’s owner. If a victim proves you guilty under any of these three laws, you may be financially liable for any personal injury or property caused by your pet. In any of these cases, a personal injury lawyer can help you defend yourself in court. A lawyer can help explain which laws are used in your state and which ones might apply to your situation.

Dog-Bite Statutes

Most states have dog-bite statutes, which make owners financially responsible for all injuries caused by their dog—not just by bites. Even if you weren’t being careless, you could be held financially liable for any injury caused by your dog without provocation.

The One-Bite Rule

If you, as an owner, knew that your dog had the potential to bite someone, then any person attacked by your dog could automatically win a lawsuit. In order to prove that you had prior knowledge of your dog being dangerous, they can reference previous bites or aggressive behavior. Since the state of New York uses the one bite rule, some people mistakenly believe that they cannot possibly be liable the first time their dog bites someone. Actually, you may still be vulnerable to a lawsuit if they can prove that you knew that your dog was dangerous.

Negligence Laws

If you were unreasonably careless (also known as negligent) in controlling your pet, then you are liable for any damage they cause. For example, if you leave your front door open while you are in the bathroom, your dog could run outside to bite the postman. In that circumstance, the postman would have a good chance of proving that you were unreasonably careless and therefore responsible for covering his personal injury damage.

Dog Bite Liability

First, it is important to discuss the situations in which dog owners hold liability for the damages their dogs cause during a bite or other attack situation. In fact, Colorado is a unique dog bite law state. While most other states assign either strict liability or negligence under premises liability laws, Colorado utilizes a combination of the two.

When a dog bite causes severe bodily damage or death, Colorado’s dog bite statute comes into play. The statute assigns strict liability to the dog owner. Strict liability applies even if the owner had no way of knowing the dog would act aggressively. Liability also applies regardless of a dog’s past non-aggressive status. Several severe bodily injury bites can occur.

  • Bites causing severe injuries that lead to a substantial risk of death
  • Bites causing permanent disfigurement
  • Bites causing the loss or severely reduced use of a limb, organ, organ system, or other body part
  • Bites causing fractures, broken bones, or burns

Conversely, if the resulting injuries are not severe, regular premises liability or other negligence rules may apply. The victim must prove that the dog’s owner failed to provide reasonable care in order to control the dog or prevent it from causing injury to others. Then, the victim must prove that the situation directly caused the dog bite injuries.

bookmark_borderPlanning A Residential Electrical Remodel

Residential Electrical Remodeling

don’t forget to consider how you might need to adapt your electrical wiring to your new layout. You can’t do this alone of course, so you should talk to your residential electrician to find out how you should go about the process









Home Rewiring – You shouldn’t be dealing with electrical problems on a regular basis, but you might have exactly this problem if you live in an older house. Home rewiring is a residential electrical remodeling process that aims to improve the safety and efficiency of your electrical work. This is especially important to consider if you are thinking about conducting a home renovation.

Adding Circuits – Your residential electrician can also add new circuits to your space, including dedicated circuits. These heavy-duty circuits are designed to provide powerful appliances like dishwashers and washing machines with the electricity they need in order to function

Replacing Electrical Panel – The electrical panel is the mechanism you use to control your electricity, but older models might not be so effective anymore. Additionally, certain older homes might still have electrical panels that are no longer considered safe for the home. Your residential electrician can upgrade your panel to make your home electrical system safer and more effective.

Moving-Out Updates – If you are going to be moving out of your house in the near future, you can increase the value of your property by making certain changes. You can get any necessary residential electrical remodeling out of the way so the new buyer doesn’t have to worry about it, and this convenience can make it easier to sell your house. You can also have your residential electrician prepare the home for automation technology in case future occupants want to integrate their appliances.


The last thing you want is to finish your remodel just to find out that your residential electrical work has not been done properly. Since you’ll want to cover all of your bases, make sure you work with the right type of residential electrician.

Electrical Panel Changes, Replacements, and Upgrades

Most electrical panel and/or service changes are done for two reasons:

The existing panel is too small either in Amps (main breaker size) or there is not enough physical room in the panel to add new circuits (load) needed for a remodel, upgrade, or expansion. If you do not have enough Amps in your panel, you will need to get a service change. If you have enough Amps but not enough physical room in your panel, you will need to get a panel change.

If the panel is one of two brands—Federal Pacific or Zinsco. These panels have lost their UL listing because they are known for the potential to cause fires. In 80% of the cases tested, the breakers won’t trip when needed, which is an obvious problem. If you have one of these panels, you should very seriously consider replacing it. Depending on the size of the Amps in the panel, you might also need to have a service change done.

Kitchen Remodel Electrical Services

One of the best ways to add value to your home is to remodel your kitchen. In addition to a higher home value, remodeling your kitchen can also make it more functional and comfortable for your needs

There are a number of electrical components that you can add or modify to create your dream kitchen, such as:

Lighting re-design

LED recessed can lighting

LED under-cabinet lighting

Pendant lights

New light fixtures

Sink lighting

Island lighting

Dining room light

Microwave dedicated circuit and receptacle outlet

Countertop receptacle outlets and dedicated circuits

Island receptacle outlets

Wine fridge

Range circuit

Cooktop circuit

Double oven circuit

Disposal circuit

Dishwasher circuit

Refrigerator circuit

Hood vent circuit

Insta-Hot circuit

Warming drawer circuit

Microwave drawer circuit

Garage and Shop Electrical Services

Whether you are using your garage or an outdoor shop for your hobbies, there are a variety of electrical projects you might consider to make the space more useful. Here is a list of potential projects:

Electric vehicle charger circuit and outlet

Electrical panel change and/or service change

Lighting upgrades

Add more receptacle outlets

Garage wall TV outlet

RV outlet

Attic lighting

Crawl space lighting

Furnace and related equipment

Tankless water heater

Additional circuit and outlet for:


Woodworking equipment

Garage door opener


Benchtop outlets

Refrigerator and/or freezer

Shop heater

Whole house vacuum system

Residential Remodel

Plumbing & Electrical can work with your contractor or project manager to ensure that your project meets the necessary local building codes for your new electrical systems. If your project is small or you’d prefer to do it yourself

Plumbing & Electrical can help you obtain any necessary permits to ensure your project is up to code and safe to complete.

Deleting or capping off existing circuits before construction

Reconnecting existing wiring after revisions

Removing old wiring or wiring no longer in use

Replacing or upgrading electrical circuit panel to create more space for new circuits

Replacing or upgrading electrical service (meter) to accommodate new circuits

Pulling new wiring for new circuits

Updating out-of-compliance circuits to meet new building code standards

Installing electrical fixtures, switches, control devices, and outlets

Working with other trades to ensure mechanical devices are supplied correct amount of electrical power

Residential New Construction

Whether you are an experienced home builder or a contractor taking on your first full build, you need sub-contractors that will stick with you throughout the entire project. Plumbing & Electrical performs all necessary electrical work at the highest levels of quality and efficiency. Plus, we’re also experienced at bidding off of architectural plans, and we can turn around most bids in less than one business week.

Residential New Construction Services

Bidding from architectural plans (both digital and hard copy)

Working with local power companies to ensure successful meter installation

Obtaining necessary permitting and inspections for electrical work

Setting up temporary power poles for construction power

Executing necessary rough in and finish out wiring

Working with other trades to ensure mechanical devices are supplied the correct amount of electrical power

Commercial Finish Out

Are you making changes to your business space? From minor changes like adding new cubicles to major renovations like adding a commercial kitchen or office breakroom Plumbing & Electrical have the knowledge and expertise to accomplish these updates quickly and efficiently.

Residential New Construction Services

Bidding from architectural plans (both digital and hard copy)

Consulting on Single Phase and Three Phase (3 Phase) electrical systems

Consulting on high and low voltages 480v-120v

Installing transformers and buck/boosting transformers for specialized equipment that requires exact voltage

Obtaining necessary permitting and inspections for electrical work

Deleting old unnecessary electrical circuits

Running conduit and MC cable

Installing commercial style panel lighting, emergency lighting, and site lighting (i.e., parking lot, exterior building, bollard, etc.)

Professional Electrical Remodeling Services

minor installations and repairs are only one part of our business. We also specialize in electrical work for residential remodeling projects and additions. If you are currently undergoing remodeling or adding living space to an existing home, we can help.

Remodeling & Addition Electrical Services Include:

Ceiling fan installation

New lighting

Lighting upgrade

Fixture upgrade

Landscape lighting

Generator installation

Lighting design

Wiring installation


Design & Installation Of Lighting

In any home, the lighting design is one of the most important aesthetic qualities. You rely on your lighting a lot more than you may think, both for ambiance and functional ability. remodel electricians are highly trained in both the design and installation of all lighting fixtures and electrical components. We can assist you to create a new design scheme or help you decide which type of lighting will complement the existing design for your addition.

Keeping On Schedule & Budget

With any home improvement project, we understand the importance of keeping on both schedule and budget. When you first meet with us for an estimate, we can discuss the timeline of your project, as well as the budget you have set aside. We can then put together a plan which allows us to complete your electrical project in a timely and affordable manner. Your safety is our top priority in all projects, regardless of the size

Electrical Design and Remodeling Services

New Residential Construction

electrical engineers and designers collaborate with construction teams to provide customized electrical and lighting systems to suit the owner’s needs. They work in tandem with our staff of highly trained residential electricians who install the system during remodelling. Our decades of working with residential builders gives us an edge in providing the best service for your needs.

Residential Remodeling and Renovation

staff of electrical professionals can work with your contractor to ensure a compatible, streamlined process. We can provide customized electrical and lighting systems that work within your budget and aesthetic needs. We’ve been helping area homeowners secure and update their residences for almost nine decades.

lectric Quality Standards

We understand that home construction or renovation can be very stressful endeavors. Through experience we have learned how to navigate the various building codes and zoning restrictions associated with these often complicated projects

promise to meet and exceed our quality standards including:

Maximum Safety

Highly Efficient Materials

High Tech Tooling

Most Effective Distribution of Power

Compliance with All Local Codes

Competitive Pricing

Complete Owner Satisfaction

bookmark_borderFiltering For Drinking Water Testing

Environmental Tests : Well Water Basic Profile Test

According to the Connecticut Department of Health (DPH), approximately 15% of Connecticut’s population rely on private wells as their source of drinking water. Private well owners are responsible for the quality of their own drinking water. Because a clean source of drinking water is critical to your health, the DPH recommends testing your well water once a year for routine analysis and after any work is done on your well, pump or piping. The recommended tests, (total coliform bacteria, nitrate, pH, sodium, turbidity, and color) are all covered in Basic Profile- Bacteria Physical/Chemical test.

The Basic Profile Water Test analyzes the following bacteria and physical/chemical properties:

Coliform Bacteria are not disease-producing organisms themselves, but they are used as an indicator of disease-producing organisms. When coliform bacteria are present, there is an increased probability that the source water may have been contaminated by surface water or fecal material and may also contain disease-producing organisms. Chlorination is the best method for eliminating bacteria from the water, but if possible, the source of contamination should be located and treated so the problem does not recur.

For healthy people, the Sodium content of water is relatively unimportant because the intake of sodium from other drinks and foods is so much greater. People following a low sodium diet because of hypertension, kidney, or cardiovascular disease should be concerned with an elevated level of sodium. The usual low sodium diet allows 20 mg/L in the drinking water. Elevated sodium levels are likely to be seen with the use of a water softener. Other possible causes are run-off from road salting or sewage contamination.

An elevated Nitrate Nitrogen level may be an indication that agricultural fertilizer or waste disposal is polluting the water. The AL of 10 mg/L has been established to prevent a disease called methemoglobinemia “blue baby disease” in infants. Reverse osmosis and ion exchange resins can remove nitrates.

Odor in water can be caused by foreign matter such as organic compounds, inorganic salts or dissolved gases. These materials may come from domestic, agricultural or natural sources. The action level (AL) has been set according to aesthetic values but acceptable waters should be free of any objectionable odor.

Manganese at levels greater than .05 mg/L may produce brownish black stains in laundry and on fixtures and impart an objectionable odor and taste. It is usually found along with iron in soil with a high mineral content. Oxidation followed by a greensand filter is a common method of manganese removal.

Water Color may be caused by dissolved organic material from decaying vegetation and/or certain inorganic material such as iron or manganese. While color is generally not a problem from a health standpoint, its presence is aesthetically unpleasing and suggests that the water may need appropriate treatment.

The AL for Chloride was established primarily as an aesthetic standard. The concentration at which the average person can detect a salty taste in water is 250 mg/L. A very high chloride level can lead to the corrosiveness of water on pipes and heating equipment and is usually associated with a high sodium level. Sewage contamination, run-off from road salting or an improperly maintained water softener may cause elevated chloride.

Turbidity is the presence of suspended material such as clay, silt, plankton, finely divided organic material and other inorganic materials. Turbidity in excess of five units are detectable in a glass of water and are usually objectionable for aesthetic reasons. The most common method of lowering turbidity is with a filter system.

Sulfate in drinking water has no beneficial effects. The desirable limit is 250 mg/L. At higher concentrations sulfate may have a laxative effect and cause taste deterioration.

pH is a measure of the acid or alkaline content of water. Water with a low pH (acidic) is corrosive to plumbing and may cause leaching of toxic metals such as lead or copper. Soda ash can be added to the feed water to effectively raise the pH.

Iron levels above 0.3 mg/L can discolor fixtures and laundry and may impart a metallic taste to the water. Iron is frequently present in water because of the large amounts present in soil. Corrosive water will also pick up iron from pipes. Common methods for removing iron from the water are aeration or chlorination of the water followed by filtration.

Calcium and Magnesium salts are the major cause of Hardness in water supplies. Although not detrimental to health, hard water retards the cleaning action of soaps and detergents. When hard water is heated it will deposit a hard scale on heating coils and cooking utensils with a consequent waste of fuel. A water softening system is the most common method of lowering the hardness in water. The following is a scale on which to compare your water hardness: (0-75) low/soft; (76-150) moderate; (151-250) hard; (over 250) very hard.

Water Testing

In spite of all the stories we hear about possible contaminants in the water supply, most people have water that is safe to drink, especially those served by a large municipal water system. However, well water should be tested periodically for coliform bacteria.

Additionally, if the property is located in an agricultural area, the water should be tested for nitrates, and if the home is more than 30 years old, or if the plumbing pipes are joined with lead solder, then the water should also be tested for lead. The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) requires water tests for bacteria, nitrates, nitrites and lead.

Other reasons a water test may be warranted:

lender may require a water test prior to loan approval

well located downstream from a septic system

use of lawn fertilizers, salt or de-icers near the well

Testing more than once a year may be advisable in certain situations:

pregnant or nursing household member

unexplained illnesses in the family

any change in taste, odor, color or clarity of the water

a neighbor tests positive for contaminants in their water

any dumping of chemicals, pesticides or fuels into or near your well

if any part of your well system has been replaced or repaired

Home Inspections

When they sign the contract of sale. The county introduced this law to monitor the water quality in the area regarding private wells. It requires the seller to have their well tested by a certified water operator and laboratory for a number of substances including bacteria, chemicals, metals and other contaminants.

The tests must be paid for by the seller and be ordered within 10 days of the signing of the contract. The law also states that the buyer and seller cannot waive the testing because a copy of the test results must be sent by the laboratory to the County Department of Health, and to the seller via Home Inspections This new law also affects tenants who rent a property that is supplied with well water.

Q2: What types of properties are subject to the testing requirement? A2: The Law covers SALES and LEASES of properties served by private wells, as well as

Q3: When in the real-estate sales process does testing have to happen? When the contract is

signed? What about rentals? What about new wells or wells not in use? A3: The law requires the following:

• Upon the signing of a contract of sale for a property subject to the Law, the seller must cause a water test to be conducted in the manner provided, and for at least the contaminants required, by the Law.

• The lessor of real property served by a private well must test the well water: (1) by November 19, 2008; or (2) within twelve (12) months from the date that any real property becomes subject to a leasehold if a lessor begins leaking the real property after the law’s effective date (i.e., November 19, 2007); and (3) at least once every five (5) years after the dates established in (1) or (2) above. Results must be provide3d to current lessees within five (5) days of receipt of water test results. Every time a rental property subject to the Law id Leased, a written copy of the most recent test results must be given to the lessee.

• All new wells, prior to first use must have the well water tested prior to use. All wells not in use for a period of five (5) years are treated as new ells and must be tested prior to use.

Q4: When do the testing requirements take effect?

A4: The effective date of the Law is Monday, November 19, 2007. Accordingly, on and after that date, all sales of property served by private wells, all new wells and wells that have not been in use for a period of five (5) years are subject to the Private Well-Water Testing Law and are required to meet the testing requirements. Testing is not required for real estate transactions that were already under the contract before the statute went into effect (November 19, 2007).

Home Inspections

Home inspections, radon testing, and water quantity testing. These inspections can be either for the buyer or seller. Our home inspections include:




Heat and Cooling Systems




Ventilation and Insulation

home inspectors will provide you with a digital detailed report complete with pictures and a summary listing any major concern or safety hazard. The inspections we provide conform to and exceed the InterNACHI standards.

Home Inspection offers flexible hours for your convenience. Inspections can be scheduled Monday through Saturday

Water Well Inspections

Private water well is one part of your home that you probably never think about, until there is a problem. And if not properly inspected, it can lead to a very expensive repair that you never expected and certainly never wanted. This can be avoided with the proper well inspection.

If you are looking to buy a home with a private water well, it is important that you have the system inspected. There can be many hidden problems that you will not know about until they happen. Unlike most things in a house, when something goes wrong with your well it’s usually very expensive.

Are you selling your home? When a home is put on the market to sell, it may be required in your county (like County) that the well and septic systems be inspected before the house can be sold. This is called Time of Sale or TOS. You may want to check with your Realtor or County Health Department beforehand to see if your well needs to be inspected.

it means that we have gone through many hours of training to make sure we know how to properly inspect your well and septic systems. In fact, WCPH Environmental Health Division is known to have one of the best training programs for well and septic systems in Michigan. Our inspections are done the same rigorous way we do the WCPH TOS program, which include making sure that the water well is properly located away from possible contaminations, the well head is properly installed, and to check for abandon wells on the property.

bookmark_borderAccountant Careers

What Are the Three Major Areas of Accounting?

Accounting and finance are integrally connected for each business firm. Accounting is the study of how information is gathered and distributed inwards and outwards. Finance, is the study of how firms make the investments and financing decisions they make operate their business.

Finance relies on accounting information to operate, and accounting must have financial experts in order to translate accounting information for the general use. There are three major areas of accounting:

Financial Accounting:

Financial accounting is where accounting deals with external parties interested in the business firm. According to the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), it provides the most important financial collecting and reporting functions for business firms.

Financial statements produced for the benefits of your external investors. Investors need to be able to get the review of financial statements such as the income statement, the balance sheet, and the statement of cash flows in order to decide whether they should invest in this business firm or remain invested in the company, or not.

Financial statements are of interest to another group of external individuals- the creditors of the firm. Creditors are the bond-holders of the firm or they could be the debt-holders of the firm. Creditors are individuals who loaned money to the firm, and interested in receiving a return on their investment and, eventually, a return of their principal.

Managerial Accounting:

Managerial Accounting is where accounting associated with gathering and articulating the financial information for inside organizations such as managers and staff.

You may compare it to the financial accounting which is concerned with information for external individuals. The Institute of Certified Management Accountants states that management accountants are the ‘value creators’ among accountants, thereby taking their place between the finance people and the financial accountants in the business organization.

Managers use financial information to take better business decisions. They use a variety of techniques such as variance analysis, risk management, and cost-volume-profit analysis to predict the best forward-looking information as possible.

Cost Accounting:

Some professionals consider Cost-Accounting as a part of Managerial-Accounting and some think that Cost-Accounting is a different functional area of accounting. Cost-Accounting and Managerial-Accounting surely overlap.

Cost-Accounting looks at the costs of production for a business by looking at the fixed costs of the products and services, they sell and their input costs. Input costs compared to output cost for the measurement and better understanding of the financial performance of a firm with directly regards to the production costs. Elements often used: indirect costs, or overhead, raw materials, as well as labor. Managers use the information from Cost-Accounting to establish the cost control programs for their business firms.

Why is accounting important?

Accounting is a deciding factor regarding the financial health of a business. Logging and tracking an organization’s financial data can help you find out a company’s cash flow, income and expenses. All of this information can be provided to stakeholders who have a direct impact on business operations. The more financial information you have about your company’s financial health, the better positioned you are to make decisions about your company’s future.

Types of accounting

Contrary to popular belief, accountants don’t only prepare taxes. Accountants can also investigate white collar crimes, audit businesses, or work exclusively in government and manufacturing environments.

Accountants can be CPAs (Certified Public Accountants) or perform bookkeeping and accounting tasks such as managing the accounting cycle at a small business or a large corporate entity. They can also work for a nonprofit or a large consulting firm.

Here are some of the different areas of accounting and what they entail.

Financial accounting

Financial accounting is the process of compiling financial reports for external use. Financial accountants work with their colleagues and managers to strategize how a company can be more profitable. Also, they track all financial activity recorded in a ledger in addition to ensuring that internal procedures are being followed and that all financial activity appears on relevant financial statements.

They must abide by Generally Accepted Accounting Principles set for U.S. businesses and International Financial Reporting Standards if a company operates overseas. Overall, financial accountants need to have strong attention to detail to convey the current financial state to outside sources.

Managerial accounting

This type of accounting documents, monitors and assists in the financial planning of an organization. Their documentation is typically meant for internal stakeholders rather than the public. A managerial accountant must be careful in communicating confidential information and to whom. They work with their managers to analyze and create a budget to meet the needs of the short- and long-term goals of the organization.

Cost accounting

Cost accounting can be seen as a subcategory of managerial accounting. Cost accountants are responsible for documenting, presenting and reviewing manufacturing costs. They oversee all variable and fixed costs to see if output aligns with the cost to produce a product. They also work with managers to decide on future decisions based on the financial forecast and the progress of production.


Internal and external auditing falls under the category of public accounting. External auditing is the action of a company providing financial statements to a third-party for financial feedback. In this instance, a third-party is a reliable source in describing if a company’s financial statement is a representation of GAAP.

Internal auditing determines the effectiveness of internal accounting processes. An internal auditor can review employee departmental responsibilities, management policies and approval procedures on related projects. In turn, they provide useful feedback that can help a company to become more profitable and efficient.

Tax accounting

Tax accountants help businesses stay in compliance with annual tax codes when they file each year. They also assist companies in planning for future tax returns, such as avoiding certain tax burdens and understanding the implications of specific tax decisions. Usually, larger organizations will hire a tax accountant to navigate the complexities of financial records.

Accounting information systems

Accounting information systems, or AIS, manage the improvement of successful accounting procedures. Employees working in this field decide on the best times to install updated technology and monitor the progress of existing systems to determine if there is an increase in productivity over a given timeframe. They can make decisions in conjunction with the IT department to instill continuity with technological processes.

Fiduciary accounting

Fiduciary accounting is the procedure of trusting one individual to handle financial accounts. They’re obligated to serve on behalf of their clients for accounts tied to real estate, trust funds, investments and others. Also, they must give relevant financial information to their clients once a year, which includes a summary of all accounts, schedules of receipts, gains, losses and the assets they have at their disposal.

Forensic accounting

Forensic accounting requires accountants to reconfigure a company’s financial information when some information is missing or not available to review. The goal of forensic accounting is to gather all available documentation and accurately and comprehensively record all credit, debit and cash transactions in financial statements. These professionals often work on legal cases involving fraud, claims and disputes.

Public accounting

Public accounting refers to businesses that provide accounting advice to clients based on their needs. They can work in auditing, assist with tax returns, consult on procedures tailored to the installation of technology or computer programs and provide legal advice.

Government accounting

Government accountants manage the financial planning and allocation of resources to departments within a local, state or federal government. This type of accounting has standards that must comply with the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) who is responsible for developing consistent accounting procedures for local and state governments. They also monitor a government’s budget and allocate funds appropriately.

bookmark_borderStarting A Successful Carpet And Upholstery Cleaning Business Based Out Of Your Home

Guide to Upholstery Cleaning

carpet cleaning always seems to get all of the attention but it’s time to show your furniture some love too! With all of the traffic that comes through your house, your upholstery items go through a lot of wear and tear, making your furniture lose its color and vibrancy over time. No need to fear! Here is a guide for your upholstery cleaning needs!

Upholstery Items Need Attention Too!

It’s obvious that something will last longer when it is taken care of, so it shouldn’t be a secret that your upholstery items need a regular cleaning! With all the people that use the furniture in your home, it is recommended to have your upholstery items cleaned about every 6 months. Getting a cleaning this often will lengthen the life and help keep the natural color of your upholstery items. Giving the needed attention to your upholstery items will help your home look cleaner and feel healthier!

Fight Lingering Stains

It seems to be almost impossible to prevent any stains from getting on your carpets or furniture. You might even have an internal stain that just won’t come out! Don’t let that stain keep embarrassing you every time you see it

Upholstery Cleaners Tips

Upholstery Cleaning Tips, DIY and Service

spend the majority of our free time in the heart of the home: the living room. Whether you’re entertaining, or just relaxing, the last thing you want to see is a big water ring on your sofa, or smell a foul odor coming from the spot where your dog usually sleeps

Furniture and Couch Cleaners

You have that favorite chair or couch, and you don’t want to get rid of it. It is like an old shoe, worn out but comfortable.  Is there an alternative to replacing it with something new?  You bet there is

Upholstery has to be maintained regularly because the furniture is soiled so frequently. Body oils, bacteria, germs, dust mites, mould spores, allergens, and bugs lurk in places that we cannot see.

services job is to thoroughly clean, sanitise, deodorise, remove stains, and protect your furniture. It’s our job to make sure your furniture is clean and safe for you, your family, and your guests! Dirt, grease, and dust will build up over time and soil your furniture.  Regular vacuuming helps, but there comes a time when this no longer fits the bill.  It is time to call in the professionals to give that worn piece of furniture a new lease on life

Upholstery Virus & Bacteria Disinfection Clean

Capable Truck mounts hot steam cleaners kill and removes viruses, bacteria, germs, dust mites, and other pathogens from interior car upholstery if the steam is over 70C hot.

Pre-spraying your mattress and mattress bed with an FDA approved antiviral disinfecting sanitise treatment. Before performing Hot Water Extraction on your mattress beds to eliminate risks from Sars COVID-19 corona viruses, bacteria germs, bed bugs, dust mites, and other pathogens.

A Guide to Upholstery Fabric

Upholstery fabric can be made from a variety of materials. It can be natural, man-made or a combination of the two. Each material has its pros and cons. To get the right fabric for your look and lifestyle it is important to compare them.

Here is a list of the most common fabrics for upholstery:

Cotton is soft and durable, but it is also susceptible to wrinkling and can be easily soiled. If exposed to direct sunlight, cotton may begin to fade.

Linen is made from the flax plant. It is a good upholstery fabric for both casual and formal spaces. It naturally resists pilling and soiling, but it can wrinkle easily. Some linen slipcovers can be dry-cleaned.

Synthetic (or man-made) fibers such as polyester are more resistant to fading and staining than natural fibers. Many upholstery fabrics blend natural and synthetic fibers to offer the best of both worlds. For example, a cotton-polyester blend has the soft feel of cotton but with greater resistance to fading and wrinkling. There are many different synthetic fibers, but the following three are the ones most commonly found in upholstery fabrics.

Acrylic is lightweight and soft. It also resists wear, wrinkling and fading. This is a great choice for furniture in bright sunlight or near a window. Most acrylics require special cleaning.

Nylon, one of the strongest fibers you can find, is incredibly durable. Manufacturers might combine a delicate fabric like velvet with nylon to help prevent the nap (the raised surface) from getting crushed. Its big downside is that it is sensitive to light and usually needs to be cleaned with solvent-based cleaners.

Polyester is strong and durable and is commonly blended with other fibers to reduce fading (it stands up well to sunlight), provides wrinkle resistance and adds resilience to napped fabrics.

Stain-resistant fabrics. There are many fabrics that are stain-resistant, either because they are made from a fiber that inherently repels moisture and stains or because they have a treatment applied to them.

Slipcovers have a slightly more casual look, which some people might not want, but you should strongly consider going with a slipcover if you have young children or you are choosing a white fabric. White is hard to keep clean, no matter how hard you try.


When you research upholstery fabric you often come across the term double rubs. This refers to a test of a fabric’s durability. The double-rub test is done with a back-and-forth motion, similar to the wear that occurs when someone sits down and gets up again. The number of double rubs before the fabric shows visible wear provides the rating. The higher the number of double rubs, the more durable the fabric


Many fabrics may look great, be stain-resistant and have the durability you need but then fail on the most important test: texture. Nobody likes a piece of scratchy furniture. Your hands may not pick up on the roughness, so when you’re looking at fabrics, make sure to touch them to your face or arm. This is especially important for a piece you’re likely to lounge on, such as a sofa in front of a television.

Upholstery Cleaning Guide

There is a huge array of fabric and vinyl upholstery options available for casino chairs and attempting to list them all as well as how best to clean them, is an impossible task. Stains do happen and removing them from the upholstery can be difficult.

As a general rule of thumb, you should treat stains immediately before they become permanent. Use white towels, roller towel or an absorbent cloth to ‘blott’ the spillage. Keep blotting and changing the absorbent material until no more of the spillage or coloured matter is being removed.

VINYL upholstery

Vinyl upholstery should always be cleaned with clean water using a damp cloth to wipe away stains or spills. Solvent-based cleaning materials should never be used as they may damage the vinyl causing it to crack and peel. Cotting Esprit vinyl cleaning instructions.

FABRIC upholstery

Always follow the manufacturers’ cleaning instructions. If none are not available, then use the general guide to cleaning everyday stains on fabrics as suggested by Materialised. Pre-test all solutions on an inconspicuous area. When using liquid cleaners work from the outer ring of the stain toward the centre.  Always rinse with clean water and blot dry to finish as detergent residue tends to attract soiling.  If in any doubt, contact a cleaning specialist.

Standard & Reference Guide for Upholstery Cleaning

The Institute of Inspection, Cleaning and Restoration Certification (IICRC) Standard and Reference Guide for Professional Upholstery Cleaning (IICRC S300) is a procedural standard. It has been written using reliable principles, research and practical experience, plus consultation with and information obtained from numerous sources.

For many years furniture manufacturers have used colorfastness codes to assist consumers in determining safe cleaning solutions (e.g., dry solvents, water) to use on their upholstered furniture.  Over time these “colorfastness codes” evolved into “cleaning codes” for professional cleaners as well.  However, upholstery cleaning technicians have always determined the appropriate cleaning method for individual furniture based on fiber content, fabric construction and careful inspection, rather than “colorfastness” or “cleaning” codes.  One of the primary purposes of IICRC S300 is to clarify the way in which appropriate cleaning methods are determined

IICRC S300 provides a specific set of practical standards for all methods of dry and wet upholstery cleaning.  It does not attempt to teach comprehensive upholstery cleaning procedures; rather, it provides the foundational principles for proper cleaning practice.  There are numerous programs available in the industry to teach the specific details of upholstery cleaning.

IICRC S300 is presented using a two-part format: the Standard itself, and a supplementary “Reference Guide.”  The procedural Standard is featured in the first section of S300.  This Standard is supported by the Reference Guide in the second section.  The intent is to use the information outlined in the Reference Guide as a tool to better understand and apply the Standard itself.  However, the Reference Guide is not considered a part of the Standard.

bookmark_borderDifferent Types Of Veterinarian

Advantages and Disadvantages of being a veterinarian

What are some of the pros of becoming a Veterinarian?

If you are considering becoming a veterinarian, following are the pros:

  • There are plenty of jobs available if you are a veterinarian. You will easily land up getting a job just after the completion of your studies, as long as you are not very particular about the location of the job. Most of the veterinarians get into independent practice.
  • Gamut of job options is available to choose from, ranging from government hospitals to independent clinics, from poultry farms to NGOs and so on.
  • As compared to medical doctors, chances to get sued are very rare and least likely.
  • Being a veterinarian can pay you very well.
  • There is immense satisfaction in serving the helpless and the needy.

What are the cons of a career in Veterinary Sciences?


  • The course duration is too long. If you want to become a veterinary surgeon, then you need to go for a 4-5 years program in veterinary sciences and animal husbandry. And then in order to get good opportunities, you might also consider going for a Masters which again takes 2 years. In this way, it takes almost 7 years after your high school before your career actually starts paying you.
  • Sometimes you might come across angry and agitated pets and animals. Every now and then you are on a risk of being bitten by one such animal.
  • To become a veterinarian, the foremost attribute that you require is compassion. However it deeply pains giving euthanasia to an animal.
  • You might sometimes as well come across upset pet owners.
  • Doesn’t matter if you are practicing independently or with an organization, you need to be on call.
  • The work of a veterinarian is both physically and mentally demanding. And sometimes emotionally too!

You’ll have the chance to help animals.

Obviously, becoming a veterinarian gives you the skills and knowledge you need to treat dogs, cats, and other animals and put them on the road to recovery. This is one of the most rewarding parts of the job: helping a creature that came to your clinic in a bad condition and using your abilities to improve its health and help it get better.

You’ll have a job that you love.

Being a veterinarian means you’ll be surrounded with different animals. One day you might be working with small, fluffy dogs; the next day you might be treating large cows or horses. You’ll definitely run into many challenges, but all of them can be worth it since you’re following your passion and working in a job that aligns with your values and interests.

You’ll go through emotional roller coasters.

No matter how hard you try, there will definitely be times when you can’t save a patient. There might even be instances when you’ll need to perform euthanasia to free patients from unnecessary suffering. These events can leave you emotionally broken; over time, you might experience “compassion fatigue”, a term that’s used to define a set of emotions that can range from being highly sensitive to the slightest events to feeling numb about what’s going on around you.

2. You’ll struggle for work-life balance.

More likely than not, you might find yourself working regular hours and being on call even after your work day has ended. This is particularly true if you’re in a small town that doesn’t have a lot of veterinarians. As a result, you might find it hard to balance your work and family life, and you might end up being constantly fatigued and overworked.

Difference Between a Veterinarian & a Veterinarian Technician

Veterinarians and veterinarian technicians work closely together to ensure the medical health of animals in veterinary clinics across the United States, but there are important distinctions between them. Veterinarians require far more schooling and assume much more responsibility than do veterinarian technicians, and as a result veterinarians earn far more money.

According to Careers in Healthcare, becoming a veterinary technician can be a stepping stone to a career as a veterinarian. Becoming either a vet or a vet tech will provide an opportunity to help animals at all stages of life.

Contrasting Educational Requirements

Veterinarian technicians typically go through a two-year postsecondary program to acquire the licensing and certification needed to work in the field. To get somewhat higher pay and additional responsibilities, a veterinarian technician can complete a four-year postsecondary program and work as a veterinary technologist or apply to veterinary school.

By contrast, veterinarians first complete a bachelor’s degree with a pre-medicine concentration, and then undergo an additional four years of schooling to receive the title of doctor of veterinary medicine.. The UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine says that some veterinarians also complete a residency to become certified in a specialty area like equine medicine. Some earn a Ph.D. and research animal diseases and new cures.

Different Occupational Responsibilities

Veterinarian technicians usually work as assistants to veterinarians. They take X-rays and blood samples, test blood or urine, administer medications and keep patient records in order. They sometimes perform emergency first aid and assist the veterinarian during procedures.

Veterinarians may perform all of these duties. But veterinarians also are responsible for diagnosing the causes of illness, recommending treatment, performing surgery, prescribing treatments and medications, and putting animals to sleep. They may treat livestock or limit their practice to small companion animals.

The Pros and Cons of Being a Veterinary Technician

There are many reasons that the veterinary technician career path is one of the most popular in the animal industry. The vet tech profession has grown exponentially in recent years, and demand for qualified technicians remains strong. Here are some of the pros and cons of this very rewarding but demanding profession.

Job Security and Opportunities

There is a strong demand for veterinary technicians. The projected rate of growth for the profession is 30 percent through the year 2022. A veterinary technician should have no problem finding a job with such sustained demand for the foreseeable future.

The nature of veterinary work virtually guarantees that no two days are alike. Technicians get to perform a wide variety of procedures, see many different patients and interact with a dozen or more owners each day.

There are usually opportunities for advancement in the veterinary office. Technicians may be promoted to a supervisory role over time (either working as a head technician or in an administrative position such as veterinary practice manager). They may also advance their careers by achieving a specialty certification that can lead to a higher salary and more specialized duties.

Working with animals in hands-on capacity is a huge selling point for this career path. Veterinary technicians have constant interaction with their patients ranging from general exams to post-surgical care.


The clinic can be a stressful work environment. Technicians must be able to deal with upset owners, aggressive or uncooperative animals, euthanasia, and seeing severe injuries caused by trauma or neglect. Stress is one of the biggest factors cited by techs that decide to leave the profession.

You won’t starve working as a vet tech, but you are likely to only make a moderate salary for your efforts. Even techs with specialty certification do not earn particularly large salaries.

Long Hours and Risk of Injury

Many veterinary technicians work longer than the traditional 40-hour workweek. Many clinics are open on Saturdays, and some clinics are open seven days a week. Emergency clinics may be staffed around the clock. Even in a clinic that keeps more traditional hours, there are often occasions where they are understaffed, resulting in mandatory overtime work.

One of the biggest drawbacks to this and many other hands-on animal career paths is a higher risk of being injured at work. Veterinary technicians must work with animals under considerable stress from injury or being in an unfamiliar environment (and sometimes both of these things play a role simultaneously). A tech must be very careful to avoid bites or kicks from their patients, taking extreme care to handle and restrain animals properly at all times.

bookmark_borderChoosing An Exotic Possums

Living with Possums – Making a possum box

Removing a possum from your roof

Steps to successfully and safely remove a possum from your roof;

Provide an alternative home for the possum by constructing a sturdy weatherproof possum –house

Where possible, get inside your roof and locate the nest. The nest, which has the scent of the possum, should be placed in the new possum house.

Securely fix the possum house to a tree in or near your yard. Place it at least 4 metres from the ground so the possum will be out of reach of domestic cats and dogs.

To encourage the possum to investigate its new home, put half an apple or banana in or near the possum house.

Trim any branches that over hang the roof to remove access to your roof

Place a light in the roof cavity and keep it switched on for three days and three nights. The combination of light and smell should drive the possum out of your roof and hopefully into the possum house you have provided.

Block off the access points to the roof with timber, chicken wire or both to prevent a possum returning.

If this does not deter the possum, you may need to have the possum trapped.

Possum traps

Possums are protected fauna in NSW and catching possums without a license is illegal in NSW. Contact and we will refer you to a licensed possum removalist. Please see a plan provided by Department of Environment and Conservation for making your own possum box

Marine ply at least 12mm in width is recommended for making possum boxes. Chipboard is not suitable as it disintegrates rapidly outdoors.

Drill four 5 – 7mm holes through the floor of the box near each corner to allow any water that might get in to drain out. Hinge the roof/lid to allow easy access.

Opossum Repellent Natural Home Remedy

When there are opossums on your property, you will want to take the necessary steps to get them off and keep them away. Repellents should theoretically accomplish both of these goals at the same time, discouraging new possums from entering your yard and encouraging the current ones to leave. Unfortunately for those who think repellents are a miracle cure, they are not always effective and are frequently a waste of time. That being said, they can sometimes work with a bit of knowledge.

Consider Safety And Environmental Impact

Before you get too far into considering a particular repellent to keep opossums off your property, you should consider whether it contains any chemicals. The vast majority of repellents sold commercially will contain some sort of chemical and there is no telling what it will. Aerosol repellents in particular tend to be rich in these harmful substances. When chemicals are part of the repellents, there are a few important risks to consider. What happens if your child or pet gets close to the repellent and accidentally ingests some? This would be easily possible if they touch the area sprayed with the repellent then put it in their mouth. You also need to think about the environmental impact as aerosols can harm the planet and any repellent containing chemicals can lead to these ingredients running off into the ground and water supply.

Things To Consider About Scents

You will notice that a large number of the repellents that claim to work for opossums are scents, whether in a spray, liquid, granules, or other format. Scents have a unique set of disadvantages that you need to consider. First of all, the smell will fade over time naturally so you need to reapply it every few weeks for as long as you want the possums to stay away. You will also need to reapply the scent after every single rainfall as it would be washed away. Don’t forget that opossums can also get used to smells over time, meaning that a repellent which was once effective may not remain that way.

Scents To Try

A quick online search will show you a long list of home remedies that theoretically work as possum repellents. One of the most commonly suggested is predator urine, which you can either buy in the store or even get from your pet dog. You may also see recipes that include ingredients like peppers. Looking at the options for sale will show you another long list of ingredients and scents that promise to produce results. The common theme, however, is that none of them actually do. In most cases, people who see success with these repellents were just lucky.

Ultrasonic Sounds

Another type of repellent that is commonly suggested but won’t likely produce results is an ultrasonic sound machine. These machines are designed to operate at a frequency that humans can’t hear but animals do. The idea is that the possums and other wildlife will find the sound annoying and leave your property. In reality, the animals typically ignore the sounds. In some cases, humans may even hear them, meaning you become an annoying neighbor. Considering these machines are costly and would theoretically need to be on 24/7, plugged in the whole time, they are a big waste of money.

Caring for possums

These guidelines are for the Top End subspecies of brushtail possum, as this is the species most likely to come into care. Rock ringtail possums should only be cared for by experienced carers. This information should be used as a guide only. You will need specific information to properly care for injured or orphaned wildlife.

There are two species of possum in the NT, the rock ringtail possum (Petropseudes dahli) and the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Both species are nocturnal marsupial mammals.

Rock ringtail possum

The rock ringtail is found across the Top End. It lives in tight-knit family groups, where parents and the young from previous breeding care for the new young. These possums are found in rocky terrain with trees and foliage nearby. These animals rarely come into care. When they do, they should only be looked after by experienced carers.

Common brushtail possum

There are two subspecies of the common brushtail possum in the NT. The subspecies Trichosurus vulpecula vulpecula lives in isolated populations in the southern part of the Territory and is endangered in the NT. If you encounter this species, report it to Parks and Wildlife immediately.

Possums should be kept in a quiet, secure location away from family pets and excessive noise. This includes general household noise, traffic, domestic animals and construction.


For many Victorians, sharing your property with possums is a fact of life. The trees and gardens around our houses provide a modified woodland similar to their natural habitat. A possum in your roof or eating your flowers can be very frustrating, but people and possums can live together successfully.

Do not feed possums. Human food can be dangerous to possums and cause serious dietary imbalance. Possums eat the leaves, flowers and fruits of a wide variety of native and exotic trees and shrubs. The Common Brushtail Possum may also eat grass, fungi, bird’s eggs and baby birds.

The Common Brushtail Possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is about the size of a cat. It has large pointed ears, grey fur and a bushy black tail. Brushtail possums have a single young born in autumn or spring. The baby spends around six months in the pouch, one to two months riding on its mother’s back until it is weaned and leaves the maternal den at 7–16 months old.

The Common Ringtail Possum (Pseudocheirus peregrinus) is much smaller than a brushtail, about half the size of a cat. Ringtail possums have round ears, a grey back with rusty sides and a curled tail with a white tip. They have one to three young, mostly twins, born during autumn or winter. Ringtail possums usually build a nest of twigs and leaves, called a drey, several metres above the ground. They rarely enter house roofs.

Possums living within buildings

Possums are protected under the Wildlife Act 1975. Possums must not be harmed in any way or kept without approval from DELWP. It is illegal to harass or interfere with possums.  However, common brushtail possums living within buildings, municipal parks and municipal gardens may be controlled.

Homeowner’s Guide to Possum Removal

Why Remove Possums?

Possums are gorgeous animals but if they’ve gotten into your roof, you’ll know how annoying they can be – thundering around making lots of noise and disturbing your sleep for one!  This isn’t just the only problem though.  Possums can cause significant amounts of damage to your home’s wiring and to the roof itself and these problems can end up costing big dollars to fix.

Removing Possums from Your Home

Possums are surprisingly crafty at getting into the roof of your home, so you or a professional will need to take a look around the roof and seal all of the obvious entry points.  The sealing will need to be done with suitably strong materials so that the possums don’t just get back in again in the future.  If you currently have possums, the professionals will install one way exits on the common possum access point – the possums will be able to get out of your roof but not back in!  Once all possums have left, the entry points are sealed.  In rare cases, where the possum just won’t leave itself, the professional may need to catch the possum inside your roof using a special possum cage.  The possum is then released onto your property (possums generally don’t survive relocation and it is illegal to move them from their home).

As well as doing all this, the possum removal professional will also check the ridge capping, the gables and the eaves, and seal these as necessary (such as through re-pointing).  They’ll also make sure there are no loose spots on your roof or any broken tiles that can give access.  Also, you may be surprised to learn that if you have possums in your roof, you may also have rats, so rat baiting is commonly done when the possums are removed.  Never bait for rats while possums are still present.

Provide an Alternative Shelter for the Possums

If you like possums but don’t like them in your roof, an easy way to stop them from going back into your roof again is by providing them with an alternative shelter.  A possum box is ideal for this and you can install it in a tree, or even on a pole.  While you can’t keep the possum as a pet, hopefully the possum will be attracted to your possum box and use it as a home

Who Removes Possums?

If you have possums in your home, you’ll need to call a possum removal company.  These are the best people to use as they will humanely move the possums from your roof and block up all the entry points so that they can’t get back in

bookmark_borderCould Your Metabolic Engine Rebuilding Need A Tune Up

How do you free up a seized engine?

What Is a Seized Engine? What Causes a Seized Engine?

Before you can learn how to fix a seized engine or if the repairs are worth it, you need to understand what does seized engine mean. Engines seize from mechanical failure.

Oil Problems

In most cases, this comes from a lack of oil. The oil may not be circulating properly or you may have no oil. When this happens, there is no internal lubrication, so the metal parts create friction as they rub against each other. In extreme cases, this can even lead to various bearings welding against other parts.

This type of problem can occur if you let your engine run out of oil or if you do not take care of oil changes regularly. It is also possible to experience a no oil seized engine due to sudden interior failures of the engine or issues with the engine oil pump. In addition to situations where no oil seized up engines, this can also happen due to low oil. It will have a similar cause.

Not Running Enough

It is also possible that your engine will seize when it has enough oil. In this case, it would be because you did not run the auto enough. That particular cause occurs when rust “freezes” the piston rings onto the cylinder walls. You can prevent that cause of a seized engine by running your car occasionally.

Hydrolocked Engines

You may also be dealing with a hydrolocked engine. This happens if water enters the combustion chamber of the engine. This makes the piston unable to make the top of the combustion stroke since the water does not compress in the same way that the air-fuel mixture is designed to.

If your engine is hydrolocked, it will likely stop working suddenly. If you get lucky and this happens at a lower speed, you may have minimal damage to the engine. However, if the RPMs are greater when it occurs, expect damaged pistons or bent connecting rods at the very least. Hydrolocked engines usually happen when water enters the engine via the air intake. That is most common if you accidentally drove through high water.

Vapor Locked Engines

Your engine may also be vapor locked. When this happens, the engine will not start due to an issue with the fuel system. This problem is more common in older vehicles that have low-pressure fuel systems. The gas in your fuel pump or fuel lines converts to gas from liquid, but this takes fuel from the engine, starving it. You can recognize a vapor lock by the engine sputtering and losing power before turning off and refusing to turn back on.

How to Free a Seized Engine

Engines rarely seize, but when they do, it is almost always due to a long period of nonoperation. When an engine seizes, one or more pistons have literally become stuck against the cylinder’s wall. Thankfully, just because an engine has seized does not necessarily mean that the entire engine must be rebuilt. The keys to freeing the engine are to reduce the air pressure within the engine’s cylinders and to reduce the amount of force necessary to break the piston free by disconnecting the components that the engine turns, such as the alternator and power steering pump.

Step 1

Remove all of the engine’s spark plugs with a socket wrench to alleviate the air pressure within the engine’s cylinders. First, pull each spark plug’s wire off the tip of the spark plug. Attach an appropriate-sized spark plug socket to a socket wrench; then remove each spark plug by turning the wrench in a counterclockwise direction.

Step 2

Remove the accessory belts from the alternator, power steering pump, and any other belt-driven accessory. Each accessory attaches to the front of the engine with one or more brackets. The brackets are in turn attached to the engine with retaining bolts. Loosen the retaining bolts on each accessory bracket with a wrench; then slide the accessory toward the engine to reduce the tension on the accessory’s belt. Slide the loose belt off the engine to remove it.

Step 3

Remove the valve covers from both cylinder heads by removing each valve cover’s retaining bolts located on the lip of each valve cover with a wrench; then pull the valve covers off the cylinder heads to access the rocker arms.

Step 4

Remove the rocker arms and pushrods to remove the amount of force necessary to turn the engine. Each rocker arm is held in place with a single nut located in the center of the rocker arm. Remove the nut for each rocker arm with a wrench, then pull the rocker arms off the cylinder heads. Removing the rocker arms will free the pushrods, which can simply be pulled out of the cylinder head.

Turn the crankshaft to free the seized engine. Since the engine’s pistons are attached to the crankshaft, turning the crankshaft will free the pistons. The engine’s crankshaft can be turned with the single bolt located in the center of the circular harmonic balancer, which is located on the bottom of the front of the engine. Attach the appropriate-sized deep socket to this single bolt; then apply steady force to the socket with a socket wrench. The bolt should be turned in a clockwise direction to avoid inadvertently loosening the crankshaft’s bolt before the crankshaft turns.

Two things you can’t have too much of in freeing a seized engine.

  • Patience
  • Penetrating oil.

Usually there is a nut or bolt on the crank end that can be used to try and turn the engine but the danger of breaking it off means a safer alternative is to use a lever on the ring gear through the starter motor aperture. The engine will need to be out of gear,resist the temptation to force things quickly by using a socket and a long breaker bar,if the bolt breaks off it will be an added complication to extract the remains. If the engine seems to have locked up remove the spark plug holes and squirt or pour some releasing fluid like Plus Gas or diesel fuel in the plug holes trying to get as much as possible on the cylinder walls. Leave the plugs out and try and move the engine. With some engine designs it is quite difficult to wet the bores but spoonfull of oil or fluid should be enough,it will have to be removed before the plugs are back in and serious attempts are made to start the engine.Hopefully it will get to the stage where it can be spun over on the starter with the plugs out which should eject the oil.Some people advocate the use of petrol and two stroke oil mixed or even petrol and ATF fluid.Thin oils like WD40 are really designed to chase off water,redex or thin penetrating oils can be used. Penetrating fluids will take a while to have any effect,dont expect an instant result..

If possible fill the radiator or the block if the engine is not in a vehicle with some hot water,this will expand the block slightly.Whilst waiting it might be an idea to remove the rocker covers and air filters etc if they are still in place to see if corrosion is present deep inside the engine.It’s possible the engine might now have some movement on the crankshaft ,if so try and turn it back and forth gradually building up to a full revolution,if not try again with the release fluid and hot water but if it resists any attempts to turn after a few more goes more work will be needed.

Understanding water damage

If the water is from an external source such as rain, and it came into the air cleaner via the butterfly stud on the air cleaner, chances are there is only a small quantity in only a few of the engine bores. You can only have so many intake valves open at one time, and the water would have only migrated into those cylinder bores. Therefore, you could only have two or three stuck pistons at the worst, not all of them. In such a case, the likelihood of freeing the engine is much better. On the other hand, if the engine had been flooded by rising flood waters, water could have entered via the exhaust system. To make matters worse, water may have also entered through the oil breather and is now (or was) present in the oil pan. Flood waters also have a large presence of silt, chemicals of unknown nature, and varying pH.

Flood water damage

The silt particles present in flood water could accumulate deep inside of the engine and hang on to the rough casting surfaces of all the internal workings. These particles are so small that when they are in solution they will infiltrate the oil clearance of a bearing. When the water dries, they will form a layer of dust within the bearing. The dust will wick up the oil from the surface and water vapor from the air will start to rust the steel surface over time. The dust may also have acids and alkalies (caustics) attached to it, and together with water vapor will etch the bearing and journal surfaces.

After a flood, newer, essential and operational vehicles take priority for being repaired, others will have to wait. Many flooded engines will just have to wait, sometimes until after the winter freeze-up, sometimes even longer. Internal damage and cracked blocks and heads are often the result of frozen water. Sometimes they will end up being junked for the cast iron. If these engines are gotten to before such damage occurs, it may be possible to salvage them intact.

How do I fix the engine that is seized?

Lots of good answers to this question have been provided, but the engine seized for a reason … usually either because the rings rusted to the cylinder bores or because the bearings have fused or become stuck to the crankshaft. Neither situation is good, and forcing it to turn isn’t likely to make it better.

Using methods like pouring ATF (Automatic Transmission Fluid) or Diesel Fuel or WD-40 into the cylinders and crankcase may enable you to rotate the crank eventually, but I’d never trust the engine for any long trip, and I’d even question it for around-the-town driving. But I’d concede that if it were the zombie apocalypse and you really needed a car to get away … and maybe had several days to let the fluid work its magic … that such a solution might work fine. Indeed, I’ve heard of several such stories from friends and relatives that suggests that it can work.

But in most such cases, the engine actually has fairly significant damage internally — or will once you force it to run.